Directionality of the discussion about Uber and Airbnb in Japan
１ Appearance of the sharing economy theory
１）Sharing economy theory in Human Logistics market
Until the mid-1970s, Logistics was recognized to be a B2B market. In reference to USP, courier service was devised afterwards in Japan. The field of a little article transportation will come into the limelight as consumers distribution of B2C market and P2P market. AMAZON utilizes “the Internet and smartphone application” and brings up this “B2C market and P2P market” as global market.
In contrast, Human Logistics has been recognized from the first as B2C market. By utilizing smartphone application afterwards, the platform supplier created new business model of P2P in human logistics market. As for this business model, individuals shares fortune and service mutually. So it is recognized to be sharing economy in this sense.
The ride share service is a system letting a driver and a passenger make matching through using allocation of cars application. It began in the United States and spread to U.K. and China. It grows up in a scale to exceed a taxi now.
For sharing economy represented by Uber, the repulsion from the existing company is intense. Because an existing company cannot cope for new needs well, new service comes up
A user in Human Logistics market is a personal consumer and holds the countercheck called the privately-owned car. In the country, the existing company cannot cope with demand. It is natural that inhabitants pay more attention to the P2P market utilizing a privately-owned car.
In this ride share, the point where is greatly different from Japan in U.S. and Britain is two. One is that local transportation administration authority is in the local government not a country. The other is that non-street-hailing taxi is treated as a car for private use. Only a taxi performing street-hailing is regarded as quasi-public transport.
Differences between street-hailing and non-street-hailing largely shrink by using a smartphone, allocation of cars application. Therefore the repulsion in U.S. and Britain became the real problem.
（２）The reason why consumers receive a ride share
The reason why a ride share is received is taxi supply inadequacy of the big city. In London and New York, the dissatisfaction of the user grew on. A smartphone was utilized to cope with these dissatisfaction. Ability for information processing greatly improved, and cost largely decreased. Cars were allocated on demand, and convenience improved dramatically.
Furthermore, the political system that could support quickly was in London and New York.
If there was not quick correspondence, the evaluation of the mayor fell. The entry of the company with the world strategic nature such as Uber escalated a sharing economy theory.
As for waiting business by the smartphone allocation of cars at a garage, Then, in Japan, may the regulations be loosen like London, New York? Special circumstances in Japan exist there. Under such situation, this report considers it whether Japan can propose Human Logistics policy with the sense of speed with the world strategic nature.
2 public transport and on-demand allocation of cars
（１）Way of thinking for the public transport
There is a great difference about a way of thinking about the public transport between Japan and the United States or the U.K. In the United States and the U.K., the railroad and the autobus which the general public used have been recognized to be a common carrier traditionally. After the war the Japanese Road Transport Act was enforced by this way of thinking, too. Regulation of the transport for private use was enforced to let management of the carryall transport business establish. Permission was necessary to do gratuitous passenger car transport business. The reason was to protect carryall transport. The permission system is abolished now. According to the thought of the U.K., the taxi and the chartered bus are not recognized to be public transport. The taxi doing street hiring is recognized to be associate public transport. On the contrary, the taxi which does not perform street hiring is not an object of the regulation as a classification of the privately-owned cars. In contrast, in Japan, the paid transport is classified in business transport. All the free transport is classified in transport for private use. The thought of the Japanese Road Transport Act is different from a British common carrier concept. The paid transport by using a smartphone and allocating privately-owned car is in violation of the Road Transport Act.
According to the Road Transport Act, duty to undertake transport is imposed on an autobus. A chartered bus does not have a duty to undertake transport, but the taxi has. The taxi which does not do street-hiring also has a duty to undertake transport.
In the U.K. taxi-business waiting at the garage depends on a telephone and radio. It is recognized that the need of the administrative participation is low. As for the document which administration of Japan and the researcher made, I cannot see a thing emphasizing difference in street-hiring in the comparison of each country taxi system.
（２）The situation that demand for on-demand allocation of cars in Japan does not increase
In the area where the supply of the taxi including London is short, the demand for the on-demand allocation of cars is high. However, in the area where the supply of the taxi is accomplished enough, there is little demand for on-demand allocation of cars by just that much. That, in Tokyo, the taxi supply power is superabundant; is recognized. A standard service by street-hiring is superior to service by the on-demand allocation of cars. In contrast, in New York, London, a supply power of the taxi was short. It was reported that the business rights of one taxi of New York were 1 million dollars. You must pass a qualifying examination to need 30 months or more to become a driver of Black-Cab in London.
Even so, it is the time when the smartphone application allocation of cars is in an international standard. Japan misses a world trend as it is by not being able to utilize big data if street-hiring continues.
３ Taxi circumstances in the big city
(1) New York City
① Enforcement of the investigation that I applied GPS by New York City
Taxi and Limousine Commission of New York City analyzed the service situation of the taxi by using GPS to check the supply inadequacy of the taxi
The Mayor of New York announced green-cab in April, 2012. The business area of green-cab is district north than a harem of Manhattan and outer-bourough. Yellow-Cab and Green-Cab are provided with a taximeter, GPS, the credit card settlement, a camera.
The GPS of Green-cab can watch movement in yellow-zone. In the case of advance reservations, the passenger can negotiate a rate.
(2) London City
① The fact of Black-Cab driver examination（Knowledge）
London City traffic Committee (TfL) performs the business regulation of the taxi. You must pass an examination called Knowledge to become a driver of Black-Cab. Because his examination is difficult, taxi number does not increase. The number of Black-Cab in London is more than 20,000, and the number of the drivers is more than 25,000 now.
② The spread of minicabs as the privately-owned car
Because the number of Black-Cab did not increase, Mini-Cab(Private Hired Vehicle) which was the classification of the privately-owned car spread. Regulation came to be bet on Mini-Cab afterwards because the troubles increased. However, regulation is not severe and the number increases now.
Mini-Cab cannot pick up a passenger on a street. The minicab finds a passenger by advance reservations. Because a meter is not on in Mini-Cab, the rate of Mini-Cab is fixed by prior negotiations. Mini-Cab must own the business permit which public passenger transport Administration Bureau (PCO) publishes. The minicab is to display an authorization on a windshield or a rear window. Like New York City, Mini-Cab increased by the spread of smartphone application. This is because it does not affect it even if Street-hiring is not accepted. Because the credit card payment of the rate decided beforehand is possible, it is more convenient than Black-Cab.
４ Correspondence to data collection and the on-demand allocation of cars
In the United States, the local government performs taxi administration. Therefore, the Chicago city authorizes allocation of cars application originally. On the homepage of London City Traffic Bureau, a link to various allocation of cars application is put. It is New York City, but, for Yellow-Cab and Green-Cab, begins an offer of the allocation of cars application. In New York City, an offer of the allocation of cars application is pushed forward for Yellow-Cab and Green-Cab.
New York City analyzes the data (1,100 million) of a taxi and the ride share and announces the result. Based on this result, Green-Cab was accepted. In Japan, Tokyo taxi association offers allocation of cars application. The reason why allocation of cars application is introduced into has the correspondence to big data. I understand intuitively if late for quick correspondence when the initiative of the person style is held by the world business. If it cannot cope, in the same way as many truck transport companies, this is because it becomes the subcontract company.
The Black-Cab person concerned insisted that the distance calculation application of the smartphone corresponded to a taximeter, and it was illegal. However, London City traffic Committee introduces the application of the taxi on a homepage, and it is not illegal. Because Hailo limited it to Black-Cab at first, the relations with Black-Cab were good.
As a result of having widened an object in Mini-Cab, relations with Black-Cab turn worse afterwards.
(3) Trend of the allocation of cars application in China
In the big city of China, the spread of allocation of cars application advances than that in Japan. Two application of 滴滴打車 and 快的打車 merges and will skip the total ride number of times of Uber of the whole world. In a city of China, the reason why the spread of allocation of cars application advanced to is because a user is dissatisfied with an existing taxi. The vehicle of the existing taxi is old, and the manner of the driver is bad. The vehicle of the existing taxi is old, and the manner of the driver is bad. The Chinese transport minister showed a policy to accept the allocation of cars through the Internet in a press conference. The reason was to lead to development of the economy. The minister showed a thought to establish new laws and ordinances immediately (NHK news).
(4) A ride share experiment in Fukuoka-shi and administrative reaction
①The transportation administration that couldn’t but become negative for a proof experiment
The American Uber began the inspection experiment of the ride share in Fukuoka City (the February 5, 2015 news). I decided to push forward a study for the efficiency of the urban traffic in cooperation with Kyushu University. It was decided that Uber stimulated a study for the efficiency of the urban traffic in cooperation with Kyushu University.
The use charges are free, and the driver obtains the information that where a user is using exclusive application. A driver bore the maintenance cost, the gasoline cost of the car. The reward of the personal driver was hourly wage 1,500 yen, other time 1,300 yen from 4:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. of the following day. During waiting time, the reward was paid, but it was decided that a penalty was inflicted when the driver did not receive an allocation of cars request.
The American and the British would recognize that this method did not have a problem. In addition, the researcher of Kyushu University did not recognize this method to be illegal, too. However, the Department of Transportation recognized this experiment to be illegal and called for a halt to the experiment on the way. The reaction of media to this was dull, too. The paid and free judgment is a legal judgment. The cost recognition is not scientific and is a socioeconomic judgment.
Uber should have performed in the local government with the permission authority of the paid car transport for private use if a proof experiment was conducted.
This is because the local government can have the authority now if it hopes. Then, the Department of Transportation should have declined. Fukuoka-City did not have the hope.
Fukuoka City is greatly different from New York City.
Besides, the Japanese media mainly report the news that the government announces.
② The need of the allocation of cars application policy for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
For a foreign tourist, use of taxi in the new land is work to pile up of the stress. This is because it treats money not to get used to being because an exchange rate fluctuates of Japan. Furthermore, this is because it does not know how much it costs.
If Tokyo Governor has authority of the local traffic to raise international competitiveness, as for the governor, cashless will propel becoming it like WIFI.
５ Sharing economy theory of a house and the hotel
（１）Relations of a house and the hotel
The hotel business act was established for the purpose of peace and order maintenance in 1948. The times just after the end of the war that did not develop of means of transportation needed the securing of accommodations of the traveler in terminal Station. The law imposed staying undertaking duty on accommodations. To that end, a law was necessary. The hotel charges were not regulated. The food was rationing, and it was said that the offer of the meal was out of the main range of the hotel business act in those days.
The staying undertaking duty rule of the hotel business act should be reviewed now because the hotel business changes for the offer of the staying service to a tourist.
The relativization of a hotel and the house advances now. Originally a staying policy existed earlier than a housing policy. It was exceptional that common people rank had their own house. The policy to provide the accommodations to them was important.
Therefore, the prewar local staying regulations prescribed simple accommodations and rooming house together. It lodges at the current hotel business act, and it is the trace that the rule of simple accommodations remains. The regulation has been unified for the hotel business act now. That is why, in Airbnb, a discussion is carried out on the basis of the whole country.
By the progress of the postwar housing policy, the real estate lease act is under the regulation of the residential land building business act. Rooming house service and the simple accommodations services are classified in “house” service functionally.
”The federation of New Economy” names the relativization phenomenon of a hotel and the house a home share. The simple accommodations rate links the house aid money of the welfare allowance.
（２）A “noisy guest” and staying undertaking deontology
In Osaka-City, Airbnb user is the world’s best growth rate of 7,000%.On the other hand, the inhabitants to hate the environment where a lot of noisy guests gather increase.This problem does not have the correct answer. It is natural that a conclusion varies according to an area. The head of the local government and a local assembly should determine. A country and a Diet member do not have to butt in.
The regulations in Ota-City assume the stay more than “7 days and 6 nights” requirements. This becomes the logic contradiction for a staying undertaking duty rule. Consideration to staying industry is an excessive result. It makes requirements to publicize to neighborhood inhabitants beforehand, but legality is a big problem in the Administrative Procedure Act because it is not done.
Undertaking duty is imposed on the real staying organization. In contrast, there is not undertaking duty is not imposed on the Travel Agent. The travel agent can decline the unpleasant visitor. Airbnb can decline an unpleasant visitor. However, it is reported that Airbnb is going to accept the complaint from the inhabitants around the accommodations.
The public bath which carried out “foreign apologies” in Otaru-city loses the case at a trial, and there is the case which was made to pay consolation money. I think the undertaking duty is anachronism.
６ Business model of the sharing economy
(1) Difference of “an idea of the riding together” and “the flat rate idea that is free to get on”
The riding together system of the taxi is occasionally insisted on. However, a way of thinking to divide into exclusive chartering and riding together collapses by the spread of smartphones. A travel reservation came to be possible to the brink of the departure.
A base of the transport system itself with the number of shipping contract groups as a problem collapses.
”JERON-TAXI” for elderly people begins in Fukuoka-City. The one month fixed amount taxi service that is free to get on is not based on the idea of exclusive chartering and riding together the fellow passenger” by thinking for binary opposition.
The idea of the multi-package tour enables it.
According to the idea of the conventional package tour, the device which is free to get on cannot be realized. For the idea of the multi-package tour, the concept of riding together and exclusive chartering does not occur.
It is thought that the probability of the success of this Jeron-taxi is higher by combining it with the driving license return of the elderly person, if the financial assistance of the local government of the population thin zone is provided. New travel agency article enables Jeron-taxi. If the structure of this travel agency article is utilized, the object of the period-limited service free getting on will spread. There become limitlessly few time differences of street-hiring and the reservation ride by the spread of smartphones. It is the appearance of so-called brink reservation. This phenomenon occurs between Black-Cab and Mini-Cab. London traffic Committee recognizes a delay of the correspondence to ICT of Black-Cab. herefore, they showed Maaxi, but did not function well. HP of Maaxi is deleted now.
In a definition, the taxi is closed-door transport.The structure of the package tour converts these reservations transport into riding together transport substantially. If the structure of the package tour is utilized,
The opening from a British style “dogma of the public transport”, “riding together is public, and reservations are not public” is enabled.
（２）Decision system of the fare amount of money before the ride
The passenger does not know how much the taxi fare is until they go down. When there is a traffic jam, the taxi fare becomes higher. In contrast, the transport by the smartphone allocation of cars is decided to undergo the amount of fare before a ride. The fare of the public transport should be settled before a ride, but, in Japan, a voice does not have it unexpectedly. The cause is because it is paid in proportion to the taxi fare that the wage of the taxi driver earned. Both labor and management is negative against each fixed amount fare system. On the other hand, the user hopes for a decision fare system. Therefore structure of the travel agency is utilized, and the decision fare service of the taxi is offered.
(3) The method that is made of the business model ~Relativization of the judgment of “pay and the free of charge”~
The judgment of the hotel charges changes by the times. Charged TV is said free now before. The free transportation from a hotel to “a railroad station, an airport” is common, and the visiting neighboring sightseeing spots of the hotel becomes free, too.
The service to take to and from free to the home is finally thought about.
Free transport may be generalized. The free transportation that is not limited to specific facilities may appear. In the world of the advertisement, free paper was virtually generalized. Because the free transport finds an economic value in human logistics information itself, it is established. For grasp of the big data grasp, I transport it free. Therefore, a global strategy is required.
７ Idea of the seamless human logistics business
(1) Platform theory
The business that Uber performs is platform business and is not transport business. They insist like that. The forwarding agent concept is born historically from the social background.
The business of these on-demand companies is called the sharing economy. The individual decides time to work by oneself and outwardly is a model to work as an entrepreneur at least.The person in a position to control the whole in the world of the distribution cannot but take the responsibility for the reality for the shipper. Therefore, a problem does not have it whether it is a shipping contract.
However, in the world of the human logistics, a user is an individual. In the frame called the transport contract, user protection for users become the discussion. The platform company denies transport contract characteristics. In that case, the user poses a direct problem to a driver. When the solution to the problem means for the user of the driver is restrictive, it is recognized as a social issue.
（２）Idea of seamless 3PHL
The number of people who traveled across a border surpassed 1 billion people a year. The air fare largely decreased by an appearance of LCC. The tourist can perform the movement in the destination and the arrangement of the hotel by smartphone application easily. Service to provide the seamless movement service of the door two door to the destination begins. In the choice of a hotel and the tourist facility, the tourist can refer to user comment and an animation.
The tourist can carry out the settlement from a reservation without the onerousness of the exchange. The guidance such as the urgent information and suspension of service, change is transmitted to a tourist automatically, too. The tourist can secure positional information, and there does not need to be the thing that a tourist loses the way and is lost. The spread of smartphone application allows these things. application allows these things.
The last obstacle of this seamless movement is CIQ and the peace and order and a taxi. The company with the world strategic nature has begun to aim at the world conquest of this taxi allocation of cars application. Unfortunately a Japanese company is defensive fight one over a ride share. In the Japanese company, it becomes the impossible order even to have a world strategy. Big data acquisition analysis about the movement of the person comes to be possible easily. Therefore I considered in a comprehensive human logistics concept. By the physical distribution, 3PL appears. I place a comprehensive human logistics industry as 3PHL.
While I thought about 3PHL, ONEGO of the American company started an aviation service to cover the United States free getting on.To a difference of the sense of speed between these Japan and the United States, I am made to think about a strategy-related difference.
8 on-demand and decentralization ～rocess of the ride share realization～
As for the local traffic administration, the local government has authority in New York City in London City. Therefore it is not so whether a civic voice is easy to arrive. There is less number of the taxi of London City and York City than Tokyo.
National organization held the taxi government of Tokyo, but a supply power was secured enough because the government party could not pass big city inhabitants to the enemy.The special economic zone design is contest administration. The local government is an applicant. It is a Japanese-style solution. It takes time too much, and sense of speed lacks. Vitality of Japan is lost and is after and is ineffective. Speed of the spread of allocation of cars application is globally fast. Japan may become too late. Area traffic of Japan may be controlled by the world business.
On the other hand, in the depopulated area of Japan, the securing of foot of the elderly person becomes the social problem. It is difficult to solve this problem if there is not it under the system to charge the local government bearing resources with administrative responsibility.
The local government can have permission authority of the paid transport with the privately-owned car now if they hope. However, there are few local governments to hope for. On the other hand, the local government is interested in a ride share taken up by the media. Securing of foot of the elderly person is quiet work. The local government should wrestle well without being influenced by the media.