Encounter of Japanese word“観光”and English word“tourist” ～ the birth and development of domestic tourism policy in Japan ～
人流 観光 ツーリズム ツーリスト
１ Outbreak of the concept of movement of people
The concept of movement of people in the domiciliation society converged to the word “travel” in the English zone, “たび” in the Japanese zone and “旅” in the Chinese zone. We must think about “domiciliation” before thinking about a travel. The way of the domiciliation varies according to an area, the times. It depends on a way of the domiciliation whether a travel was active, or it was passive.
2 Convergence to the lexical “travel for fun”
In the United Kingdom was called journey of the wealthy travel as an active, become passive traveler for public consumption occurred. The concept to distinguish this traveler, tourist, and a generalized until the 19th. Strained relations between two different journeys are themes in literature. In economics, the latter which analyzed as final consumer goods. Then, I advocate hypothesis in the theory of tourism policy lexical “tourism” will be converging to lexical “human logistics” which is coined by myself.
When “ジャパン・ツーリスト・ビューロ（Japan Tourist bureau）” was established in 1912, we used the lexical “ツーリスト” and we did not use the lexical “観光”. This means that, at the time, in Japan the concepts “tourist” and “tourism”had not been generalized.
Japanese researchers believe that the definition of “tourism” is clear. On the other hand, they consider the concept Japanese “観光” is unclear. However, it is a myth because the concept “tourism” is clear than the concept “観光”.
3 Establishment of “Japan Tourist Bureau” and “Board of Tourist Industry” of the Ministry of Railway and the concept of tourism in prewar era of Japan
In the process of English lexical “tourist” being introduced to Japan, Japan Tourist Bureau was established in 1912. However, we should confirm whether or not to include transboundary concept in the English concept “tourist” at the time. Okuma Cabinet in 1916 was considering the attraction of foreign tourists policy. However, the Japanese concept “tourism” had not been a neat organized as administrative term. This affected former Tourism Basic Law. However in the Tourism Nation Promotion Basic Law it has been unified in lexical tourism.
In 1930, as a policy for the purpose of acquiring foreign currency, Board of Tourist Industry (international tourist bureau) was established in the Ministry of Railway and trade bureau was established in the Ministry of Commerce. By the strong desire of the railway minister, the Japanese name using the character of international tourism. However, the English name is Board of Tourist Industry which had not “international”. At that time, the interpretation of “Watch the light” in “I Ching” is outbound, the Japanese became to mean inbound.
In Japan, after the administrative terminology is established, there is a tendency to establish also academic term. Therefore, it is not unnatural to think of the contents of the tourism concept went pretty convergence in 1930. According to Asahi article database, this time, even when compared with the lexical “excursion” usage of lexical “tourism” has increased significantly. However, the general public, meaning lexical “pleasure” is also not been established, did not establish the meaning lexical “tourism”.
In the material that the Ministry of Railways had created, the lexical international tourism and the lexical domestic tourism were listed together. Laws term to strictly use the words. Therefore, domestic tourism had refers to the facility development such as in Japan for foreigners. Specifically, is a project to develop a national park, it was a business in which to save the national treasure.
Definition is demanded by law term that requires normative in the rule of law. Definition has been discussed also for the post-war enacted tourist Basic Law. However, it was abandoned to create a definition.
４ generation of concept “tourism” and limit of its lexical analysis
In the era when People of the privileged class traveled for fun, the central concept of the journey was active outbound. Then, travel has been popularized. Industry that targets tourists has grown. As a result, the central concept of travel has become inbound(hypothesis ①). However, it is not been proven that. Policy to earn foreign currency by using the lexical “tourism” has been deployed in Japan. As a result, cross-border concept has been used is strong awareness (hypothesis ②)
I Ching is assumed “Watch country of light”. This country is a city concept. Contemporary border concept was established after the First World War. In order to elucidate the hypothesis①and② scientifically, we should analyze quantitatively the lexical those were used in the Edo-Meiji era. However, in Japan, documents those were written in the Edo period only not in print about 2 percent. Literature analysis is complementary ones. For the time being, so that rely on newspaper articles searches the database.
５ quantity analysis of lexical “観光(kanko)”, “tourist”, “tourism” through newspaper articles search
Judging from the article search result of ” Yomiuri Shimbun and Asahi Shimbun”, the concept “tourism” can be inferred that there was a common sense that those that exceed the border. In the newspaper examples of over border had been used overwhelmingly many. Those involved in the domestic movement of Japanese was exceptional.
Then, words were gradually changed. In the post-war reconstruction period, suddenly, tourism concept would not became that including the national action of the Japanese.
It should be noted, also changes in the historical background “country” concept of “see the light of the country.” Establishment of a nation-state has been interpreted as a post-First World War. Also in Japan, there were Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea, etc. The word mainland was present. Is the occurrence of concept “inside outside”.
Treatment of Manchuria is more subtle today. Therefore, it is a very modern attitude that it is considered that the border concept lexical “観光（tourism）” had been used in the early Meiji era when it was not established as a concept beyond the “borders”. At the time, the lexical “tourism” refers to might have used in the sense of going to see a very different local culture.
Analysis of meaning is applied history of the concept “excursion” to the lexical “tourism” is the challenge of the future of Tourism Studies. In the example of lexical “culture”, as in the example of “cultural pot, cultural kitchen knife”, there is a phenomenon in which the slide into popularization. Nuances of sightseeing in the process of lexical “tourism” is also slide into popularized has become stronger.And finally we have speculated that in the nuances of the excursion is the mainstream.
Officials of the Ministry of Railway during the establishment of “Board of Tourist Industry”, the real intention based, lexical “tourism” was thought entertainment basis. Therefore it is the “Japan of light is shown to a foreign country,” they emphasized the consciousness called. For this reason, the etymology (go to watch the light of overseas) and it became the opposite. Although this is my hypothesis.
６ Example of Japanese lexical “ツーリスト（tourist）“, “ツーリズム（tourism）” through newspaper article
When the lexical “ツーリスト（tourist）” has been used in the prewar period, it was only those relating to “Japan Tourist bureau”. Example of “tourism” was not in the period from the time of the newspaper issue of the 1870s until 1945. Example of “tourism” was not used in the period from the time of the newspaper issue of the 1870s until 1945.
Period of 1946-1989, the lexical “ツーリズム（tourism）” was used, 2times in the Yomiuri Shimbun, 5 times in the Asahi Shimbun. It is from the 21st century lexical “tourism” is used. According to the newspaper article search, lexical “tourism” that tourism researchers will be preferably used is of extremely recent phenomenon. Use the number of lexical “tourist” to reverse a hundred times more often than the use number of lexical “tourism”. The lexical “tourism” has come to be used in general is that from the beginning chanting tourism Prime Minister Koizumi. And it is determined that it has increased with the use of lexical “tourism” is increased.
７ Manuscripts decipher and expectations for Amazon and Google
According to the article search for “Asahi Shimbun and Yomiuri Shimbun”, the lexical “tourism” is used to those the majority are involved in international. Because of the little ones involved in domestic tourism of Japanese, we hypothesized that domestic tourism was not included in the lexical “tourist”.
The other reason is that, at that time, is that tourism activities related to domestic movement of Japanese was small. Are necessary scientific proven using quantitative analysis. From the beginning, it is necessary to prove Maybe lexical “tourism” has been used without the inner and outer segments.
When the lexical “tourist” and “tourism” became Japanese, the meaning of lexical “tourism” and “sightseeing” began to change. It requires quantitative analysis by ancient documents decryption. This analysis is one of the future of Tourism Studies of challenges. Future, if Google and Amazon developed a software that is automatically decrypted the ancient documents in Japanese, lexical search becomes easier. That way, tourism research would progress further.
８ Lexical “sightseeing” and Lexical “tourism” that appeared in “itinerary and cost estimates” and “tourist guide Monographs”
“Itinerary and cost estimates” and “tourist guide Monographs” are the first tourist guide books that government had provided in Japan. By an overview of the example of the use of the time of the lexical “sightseeing” and lexical “tourism”, and suggests that awareness of “sightseeing” and “tourism” at the time of government officials. Has been generally “sightseeing” is used, migration, tour, tourism, visit, etc. have also been used, there is no uniformity in the use of language.
“Tourist Information Monographs” of 21 volumes was published from Japan Tourist Bureau from 1935 to 1941. This book is that it uses a “tourist” was characterized. Original “tourist” is intended to be used against foreigners. “Tourist Information Monographs” on the also supposedly should be the fact that for Gaikyaku. However, at the time in 1935, it has become a place where read that has been created in the mind that it is also used against the Japanese for the guidance of the domestic tourism business. In that sense, this two books can be referred to for the first time created public tourist information providing system in Japan.
９ “Domestic main Foreign subordinate” by local tourism association
The number of local tourism association had soared from late Taisho period to early Showa period. As a result of the influence of the establishment of Board of Tourist Industry, in 1935 the number of local tourism association had exceeded 400. National Federation was considered to be necessary. All Japan Tourism Association was established. Subsidy was paid to the local tourism association from the Ministry of Railway. Railway free pass had been given to the representatives of the local tourism association until National Railway Privatization in 1989. Through a unified response to the foreign tourists by them, it was to discern the intelligence activities.
Tourism facilities established for the foreign tourists as supposedly were, de facto, used by Japanese tourists.
In 1873 historical site administration became the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry. At the Internal Exposition of 1894, shrines and temples in Kyoto began to take admission fee. Ancient temples and shrines storage method was enacted in 1897. Many of the scenic spot at the time belonged to the shrines and temples. In 1919, historical landmark scenic natural monument preservation law was enacted. And, since the mid-1930s, local scenic beauty associations went spread across the country apart from local tourism association.
Some tourism associations, beyond the policy of the Ministry of Railway, began to implement the tourism advertising business for the Japanese. With real intention of “the inner main outside subordinate”, the concept “tourism” had began to expand.
Kyoto City has established tourism division in 1930. At that time, Kyoto had identified himself with “sightseeing city”, but in 1934 Kyoto did with “tourist city”.
In addition to Kyoto City, Nikko-Town (1931), Atami City (1931), Uji-Town (1932), Nara City (1933), Kobe City (1934) had established tourism division. When compared to the number of tourism association, the number of municipal tourism division was less. Given that City Hall should do, and it was common sense in that it did not bloated administrative organization.
10 Impact that the emergence of lexical “厚生(recreation)” gave to Japanese domestic tourism policy
（１）Birth of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1938
The establishment of Ministry of Health and Welfare is generally considered to be a part of the national mobilization system preparing for war. The army claimed the establishment of “Ministry of Health” at that time. The army believed that people’s physical strength was reduced. However, in practice, people’s physical strength at that time had been continually improved. And the army had the idea to create a local agency of the recruiting office. On the contrary, the Interior Ministry had a comprehensive idea regarding the government on “physical education, health, labor and social issues”.
（２）Tokyo Olympic and International Recreation Tournament in 1940
As the next tournament of the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, the 1940 Olympic Games in Tokyo had been determined. ”International recreation tournament” with this was also determined to be held in Tokyo 1936.
“Recreation tournament” had been translated as “good use of leisure tournament”. Then, under the influence of the name of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the translation of English lexical “recreation” has become Japanese lexical “厚生”. However, widespread use of the term lexical “recreation” was not seen.
To reflect the current affairs, improving movement of Japanese physical strength had been performed. Thus, local tourism associations went so as to emphasize the hiking. Therefore, it had a subtle effect on domestic tourism concepts. The Ministry of Railways also stressed the public health movement. Walk travel over the Holy Land was referred to as “faith hiking”. It avoided the use of lexical “entertainment”, under the clothing of lexical “厚生（health and welfare）,” and began to emphasize hike.
After the war, the National Recreation Tournament were held along with the National Sports Festival, and “recreation and sports” became the Ministry of Education responsible business. Lexical “recreation” in the National Civil Service Law was translated as “energy recovery” in Japanese. After that, the lexical “tourism and recreation” is used again in the Comprehensive National Development Plan at high economic growth period in Japan. At that time it was no longer the idea to apply the lexical “厚生（health and welfare）” to the lexical “recreation”.
（３）domestic tourism administration of pre-war through looking emergency measures proposed concerning national welfare policy
In November 1938, the first Annual Meeting of the Japanese Welfare tournament and the Tournament Prospectus said “goal of the welfare movement to reform the daily life of the people, especially encourage a healthy home comforts poured agree to good use of leisure”. The Ministry of Health and Welfare created emergency measures proposed on the national welfare policy on December 20, 1941. It said “Rest is not idleness,” and “rest, to heal after the working is intended to prepare for tomorrow’s activities.
As the use of public welfare facilities, “take advantage of the National Park”, “installation of youth accommodation,” “farmers travel team organization,” “civil farm management,” “Sea of house facilities,” ” integration of Japan Tourism Association, National Park Association and Hot Springs Association “,” a play guide management ” had been described. As long as you read this, it is the same as the tourism, which is described in the comprehensive national development plan of today. To continue with the pre-war, during and after the war, domestic tourism is, admirably, are described in the name of the lexical “厚生（health and welfare）”.
At the stage that Japan is not a battlefield, the war, as well as public works of today, the economy is getting better. At the same time, the tourism boom continues, the golden age of tourism was in 1942.Along with the tourist trip to Manchuria and Korea, domestic tourism to the Holy Land to be representative in Ise it had become popular.
（４）Domestic tourism administration to see to the Ministry of Health and Welfare ’50 History
Tourism administration intended for the Japanese before the war is, as supposedly, did not exist. However, after the tourism association has been established in various places, inevitably, domestic tourism administration in the municipality base became to be implemented. Since resources for foreign tourists had been quite different from for Japanese tourists, it has been difficult to selectively use the polite fiction and the real intention.
The administration of Ministry of Health and Welfare, previously, was part of the administration of the Ministry of the Interior. Lexical “厚生（health and welfare ）” was used as the translation of lexical “recreation”. This has meant that domestic tourism is advanced among the Ministry of Health and Welfare administration. National Park administration and hot springs administration, accommodation administrative, etc. was the example.
Then, as a result of wartime regime has been strengthened, the lexical “hiking, welfare, health, recreation” is used, the lexical “tourism” was not used.
This effect was also continued after the war. In domestic tourism administration that the Ministry of Health and Welfare to practice, never lexical “tourism” is used, the lexical typified by such as “social tourism” has emerged.
Ministry of Health and Welfare ’50 history to lexical “outdoor recreation, public accommodation, public holiday village, national recreation hot springs” is used.
The expanded beyond the recreation is made it is from the 1980s. It became if have to wait until the enactment of a comprehensive recreation area Improvement Act.
Under the ’55 system by the Liberal Democratic Party and the Socialist Party, vacation plans in tourism policy were not handled. Vacation plans, in a comprehensive resort area Improvement Act enacted, now for the first time handled is.
Tourism researchers, highlighted the negative evaluation of the environmental policy front, did not the evaluation of in an integrated national tourism policy surface. This it was decided that delaying the research on domestic tourism policy.
１１ Future issues of research on “domestic tourism policy”
There is a theory to consider the Ise Shrine travel in the 17th century corresponds to the concept “tourism”. I have the impression that in the 17th century tourism concept exists in the same way as Western countries. Lexical “yuran(遊覧)” is used as representing the concept “tourism” from the Edo period to the present day. Lexical “遊覧” is the easy lexical and the image of a concept “tourism”. However In Japan it went and then converge on the use of the lexical “kanko(観光)”.
Initially, the concept represented in lexical “観光”, “tourism” was based on the assumption the cross-border concept. Gradually, this concept has changed to those including the domestic tourism. Finally, this concept is no longer distinguished between domestic and international. This is my made hypothesis.
Board of Tourist Industry, which was established in 1930, in Japan, began the tourism resources development projects for foreigners. This international tourism resources that have been developed in the country was also used in Japanese tourist. Local governments, rather, advanced maintenance for Japanese tourists. It was the beginning of the domestic tourism policy. However, the late 1930s, tendency to hesitate to “entertainment” as a supposedly has occurred. It was a time when hard to advocate the domestic tourism under the lexical “観光”. Therefore, under the lexical “recreation”, “welfare”, domestic tourism has been deployed.
Tend to repel this lexical “観光” was affected until after the war of domestic tourism policy.
“Rural-stay leisure activities” and “Environment-friendly nature experience activities”, both are the legal terminology made by Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of the Environment. Both have coined by repelling the lexical “観光” to about stunning. More researchers had been careless use of the lexical “ツーリズム（tourism）” rather. This attitude was also seen from the attitude for a comprehensive recreation area Improvement Act is a comprehensive method that goes beyond the boundaries of ministries and agencies. the law was known commonly as “resort method”.
2003 Prime Minister Koizumi took up the tourism policy in the policy speech in the Diet. In the wake of this thing, now lexical “観光” is used throughout the government beyond the boundaries of ministries and agencies. Meanwhile researchers were unable to develop a scientific debate about the concepts “観光”.Researchers have excuse to be not explain the “tourism” concept in lexical “観光”. And, researchers went so as to actively use the lexical “ツーリズム”
According to the article search of the ASAHI Shimbun and the Yomiuri Shimbun, this trend has appeared clearly. This trend was named as “hyphen tourism” by me.
However, it is the same as the age bearing the “recreation”, “welfare”. The study of the concept “tourism”, in much changed the words in katakana will not be progress. In English of the concept “tourism” there is inherent cause of scientific discussion does not progress as well. In the future, it is considered to be a problem to be discussed tourism researchers on an i
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