Analysis and Future Considerations on Increasing Chinese Travelers and International Travel & Human Logistics Market ⑧
人流 観光 ツーリズム ツーリスト
Ⅶ Alaska and Hawaii ~ High latitude tourist sites boasting high income level ~
Table 7-1 shows the effect of travel on economy in each state of the United States. Although California and Florida state are large in terms of the scale of consumption, the employment evaluation of Wyoming with Yellowstone National Park in Alaska with winter resort as a domestic destination of Americans is high result. Wyoming, Alaska, travel destinations for that American, is also a rich area that far exceeds the average of the United States. It will be helpful for thinking about sightseeing in Hokkaido etc.
1 Hawaii ~ Behavior style of Japanese travelers ~
(1) Various Market Expansion
In August 2015, the Hawaii Tourism Authority (HTA) summarizes and announces the plan of the tourism industry from 2015 to 2020. Among them, the strength of the Hawaii tourism industry is that the climate that is easy to spend all year round, natural resources and unique culture are the essence, but the preference of Japanese tourists to Hawaii is somewhat different from other countries . Among the plans emphasis on the selection of travel destinations in the plan, tourists from the western United States, eastern United States and Canada as “Hawaii’s points of interest” are “a place where you can relax and be energetic”, “is romantic” “Landscape that is not found anywhere else”. On the other hand, Japanese say that “Japanese is comfortable” and “best for shopping” are ranked high, and consciousness to “touch Hawaiian culture” is relatively low.
Although it is the culture of Hawaii, it is well known in the tourism industry that the image of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean was made from Hollywood movies. Fran dance is import from Tahiti etc. Ukulele is a modification of guitar brought by Westerners. Aloha shirts are based on the kimono brought in by Japanese. The statistics grasp of arrival passengers from before the war is solid.
The number of tourists increased sharply since the 1960s, due to the development of aircraft. The increase from the 1970s is attributed to an increase in Japanese tourists (Table 7-3) Today, when looking at the numbers excluding arrival customers from Canada and Mexico, Hawaii Honolulu Airport will be accepted as an outside guest airport Is the fifth largest in the United States with suppression of San Francisco (2015).
Hawaii is largely conceived in the western United States, eastern United States, Canada, western United States Western (54.8%) Eastern US (30.3%) Japan (3.2%) Canada (2.8%) and other market segments. There are no divisions such as domestic tourism and foreign tourism. When Japan’s demand halved from its peak, the West of the United States supplemented the number of passengers. Visits by Japanese residents increased by half in 1995 at peak time in 2009 (Table 7-5), while visitors from the western US increased. Canada also makes up for consumption (Table 7-6). As a market of the future we will pay attention to the Far East region other than Japan such as mainland China and there is no need to collect data.
(2) All-year tourist destination
In the summer island only the concentration to the busy season is low, but among them the most passengers in December. However, the month of visit is in contrast between Canada and Japan. As can be seen in the Caribbean cruise in Canada, the purpose of cold weather is clear. Japan is concentrating during the summer holidays in July, August and September, and the habit of taking a break is manifest. As the weight of Chinese residents increases, the Spring Festival, the National Keioi etc. may affect the sightseeing season in Hawaii.
Although visiting islands have a high rate of visits to Oahu Island where long distance airports are located, the concentration in the United States and Canada is low and Asian forces are prominent. Among them, the concentration of Japanese is high. Compared with the United States and Canada, the Asian crowds are short, while South Korea and Taiwan are longer than Japan by one or two days.
Regions with high percentage of individual arrangements are Taiwanese in the western United States, eastern United States, Canada, Europe (64.9%), Latin America (63.2%), New Zealand (62.2%), Australia (60%), Taiwan Special characteristics are emerging. In Asian crowds, Taiwan and Korea with a high level of departure (border) rate are relatively high in Asia among individual arrangement rates, and are used to traveling. Japanese residents are as low as 27%, like the mainland residents of China, despite the high repeat rate. Consumption behaviors by packs and group tours are different, not individual arrangements, and both the US and Japan tend to consume more money for group travel and pack travel. As for accommodation facilities, the hotel usage rate of Asian crowd is high, and the utilization rate of visitors of visitors from the United States and Canada is about half, and it ranges from condominium, time share, rental house, friends house.
(3) Consumption Behavior and Attributes
To Hawaii visitors, “As my first visit, staying at a hotel in Oahu by group arrangement for MCI purposes, I will do a lot of shopping”, but as I become used to traveling and becoming a repeater, “Maui island by personal arrangement for VFR It is hypothesized that shopping will be suppressed using time shares etc. of such as. From Table 7-7, the hypothesis seems to be correct.
8.4% of the purpose of visiting Hawaii is VFR. VFR is an average of 11.161 days of stay and long-term, 90.2% by self-arrangement. Party size is 1.76 people, 60% stay at friend’s friend’s house, hotel usage is 27.1%. It is ironic that tourism industry has low contribution to local people. However, Japanese who have many repeaters do not apply to this pattern. Rather this pattern will apply to Korean, Taiwanese and mainland Chinese customers who can expect future increases. Tourists traveling to MCI who are increasing to the Japanese are generally high on Oahu, hotel orientation, staying relatively short for 7.54 days.
Consumption behavior has more than triple the Asian shopping ratio than the United States and Canada. Consumption is decreasing, but in particular China consumes as much as 160 dollars. Accommodation expenses are not much different between the United States and Asia. The amount of consumption per person per day is individually arranged from group arrangements etc, but for leisure purposes rather than MCI, repeaters are fewer than first-time visitors, and time-sharing facilities are fewer than hotel guests. Also in that case, visitors from the western United States are cheaper than visitors from eastern US, and visitors from eastern US are cheaper than visitors from Japan.
(4) Cruise on Hawaii
In the figures for 2015, a total of 245631 people, including 116546 people from outside Hawaii, 125383 people aboard in Hawaii, and 3702 residents in Hawaii, used cruise, consuming 422.0 million dollars There. It is a trip of 283 dollars per person (including the onboard shipping cost of a $ 199 Hawaiian flag ship), an average of 7.84 days trip, 5.3 days on board, 1.16 on land and 1.31 days on board.
(1) Alaska in rich areas
Alaska’s per capita nominal GDP is one of wealthy states among the richest in the United States, surpassing the cold areas of approximately three times Hokkaido, Ireland, Iceland, etc., from where mineral resources are produced (Table 7-8 ). In Alaska, cruise-based tourism industry is also a place to secure employment opportunities.
Between 1997 and 2008, the number of visitors to Alaska doubled, from 500,000 to 1 million. However, visitors sharply declined in 2009 (Table 7-9).
(2) Environmental regulations and taxation disturbance
The reason for the sharp decline is in the cruise tax (The Commercial Passenger Vessel (CPV) excise tax) which came into force in 2006 “2006 Primary Election Ballot Measure No. 2”. Four new taxes have been imposed since 2007 and the majority have been distributed to municipalities through the provincial government (Table 7-10). As a result, cruise customers declined by 17%, and in 2009 the $ 165,000 revenue declined.
Table 7-11 shows the scale of various taxes and duties related to local government, municipalities, including Alaska cruises. Taxes on cruise ships themselves are about 10% even if it is a percentage of municipal revenue, but from the same table it can be understood from the same table that the decrease in cruise customers has a great influence on railway transport revenues and related revenues. So from the cruise season in 2011, the tax rate for one voyage and one passenger was lowered from $ 46 to the current $ 34.50.
(3) Overview of Cruise Visitors in Alaska
In 2012, the expenditure of US passengers and crew members during the landing of Alaska is US $ 520 million, resulting in the Alaska cruise industry hiring approximately 20,000 people and securing income of US $ 1 billion Contributed. There were 1.9 million foreign visitors in 2012 and 1.96 million in 2013. Of those, 51% (999, 600) were cruise customers, 45% (871,000) were aircraft arrivals, 4% (86, 300) of cars were cars and ferries. 82% of cruise customers get on board the United States, traveling an average of seven days. Visitors from the western United States were one-third of the total. The repeat rate is one third lower than the average 60% of the nationwide cruise. The per capita expenditure of Alaska visitors is 947US $, which is balanced with 20% spending on accommodation, 20% on shopping etc. (Table 7-12).
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