Analysis and Future Considerations on Increasing Chinese Travelers and International Travel & Human Logistics Market (1)⑤
Ⅳ A tourist’s longing travel destination for Chinese tourists – Secrets of Europe
From the 19th century to the 20th century, 60 million people ranged from Europe to the continent. It is the so-called “century of immigration”. It is said that 30 to 40% of people who made goods returned. Income leveling was done across the Atlantic Ocean. Thereafter, 60 million Asians also went to the continent and contributed to the construction of trans-US railroads, but as in Europeans the permanent residence rights were not guaranteed. Income leveling was not done with Asia.
Europe is shaking around Britain’s withdrawal from the EU. Refugees are flooded from Africa and the Middle East, and there are serious conflicts. The influence of the political situation in the Middle East, terrorism is occurring frequently. It can be said that the attachment of the century of immigrants has come to the present age. Nevertheless, the number of visitors to major tourist destinations in 2016 has not decreased.
1 Human Logistics and tourism within Europe
Europe accounts for 50% of international arrival passengers. Whether the handling method of Russia further increases the weight. There is no mistake that only the area with many national income is affected by the large number of countries. However, not only in actual results but also in the residents of Asian countries, especially the mainland Chinese residents with overwhelming population, if you take a questionnaire on the place you want to visit, London, Paris will come to the top.
According to the inbound data, the top countries of the number of visitors are regional nations or neighboring countries except for the United States (Table 4-1). Conversely, Table 4-2 shows the number of trips and the numbers of accommodations and expenditures analyzed by visiting destinations of major Western countries in addition to outbound materials. For EU countries, residents’ activities within the EU are consistent with domestic activities. Therefore, in traveling activities, it is necessary to analyze residents’ domestic and foreign travels, not in contrast with outbound, inbound and so on, in comparison with activities in their own countries of nonresidents, in a genre of travel . Besides, looking at destinations outside of the country, German and French countries have low proportions of the top countries and are decentralized. Turkey of the United States and sub-member countries appears in the top five rank outside the territory. In both cases, the weight of VFR will be high. China will appear in this table in the future.
2 Travel Behavior Comparison of European Residents – Borderlessness of Travel Consciousness –
In the world travel markets, the UK, France, Germany and Germany are Germany, Germany and Russia. Especially the British and France have many territories outside of the country, and also exchange with former colonists is maintained. Germany accepts many immigrants and contributes to economic activity. The result is power of finance, human flows, etc. Also, the ability to speak a common language in the international travel market in English is also a great force in the travel behavior of British residents.
We compare numerical values (departure rate) obtained by dividing the number of foreign travels accompanying accommodation by the population for each European country. The figure obtained by dividing the total number of accommodation in each country by the population of Europe as a whole is 0.58.
The departure rate has a strong correlation with the per capita GDP, and although there is a tendency that the local residents who can afford to travel abroad have a tendency to travel abroad, residents of Greece, Italy, France and the West There is an interesting result that there is no relative travel abroad. Also, the departure rate is also affected by the geographical conditions with neighboring countries, Finnish in Estonia with a high departure rate, Croatia in Slovenia and Croatia in Slovenia, Maltese with very few day trips frequently traveling to Italy . Although I can not grasp the statistics of day trips abroad, the meaning of the borders has changed, so the necessity of statistics itself may be changing.
We summarized the travel expenditure accompanying accommodation of residents of European countries, by country. Data on international travel expenses that are often ignored in UNWTO statistics are available in EU data. Residents in the EU will make an overseas lodging trip approximately 0.6 times a year on average, and the expenditure is about 750 € per trip. It is one-third of the travel cost, one-third the accommodation cost, and one third. On the other hand, the domestic trip is about 200 € per trip, 50 for traveling expenses, 60 for accommodation costs, and the rest for others to spend.
When analyzing by region, expenditure on travel is basically influenced by income difference. The expenditure in the Eastern Europe region, especially the regions of the Balkan Peninsula, is small regardless of foreign countries or domestic. Luxembourg, Switzerland, the expenditure of residents of high per capita GDP is high.
Consumption is a top French country with a high population, Germany’s 7th largest pushing up the average value of expenditure overall. Travel expenditure per unit basically reflects the income level of the place of residence, Luxembourg, Switzerland etc is high (Table 4-4). In addition to French German, plus a country with high income, I analyzed details other than numbers per trip in detail. Although it has been revealed that the domestic travel ratio varies depending on the size of the land area and whether or not it has a temperate zone, France (13 nights in Japan) traveling over 20 nights a year as well as domestic foreigners per capita Luxembourg 20 nights overseas), and shows few achievements up to Belgium for about 8 nights.
Looking at Table 4-4, the expenditures of residents of Cyprus and Malta are large, and they are in the best ten. Cyprus, Malta’s per capita GDP is not expensive as a developed country. It is an island country, and consumption expenditure in domestic travel is lower than average as a matter of course, consumption is large in foreign travel. It would not necessarily be done in full scale in proportion to income.
Comparing travels accompanying accommodation by major European, French and German residents in 2014, there are no noticeable differences in the number of annual travels, but observing the details, domestic lodging travelers are likely to see that French resident 16 It is markedly distinctive, followed by a German resident for about 7 nights and a UK resident for 5 nights. Conversely, the number of staying abroad living in France is the fewest, and although there are many residents in Germany, residents in the UK have many staying days per month and a large amount of consumption. This reflects that the French country has more domestic travel destinations in the southern France and so forth than Germany and the UK. In any case, residents in European countries that have lowered humanity barriers such as the Schengen Convention, the Common Currency System and the EU are considered to be selecting destinations without regard to the borders on travel.
When comparing domestic accommodation number per citizen with English, French and Germany residents, the average number of Japanese guests per year in 2014 is 3.38 nights. Although it is impossible to compare it with a French country or a resident of a west country, it is impossible to compare it with a 13 to 15 nights French country or a west country resident, but if the Belgian residents below Japan also analyze the details, the number of staying overseas is 7.7 nights per citizen, I will not travel overnight.
Both English, French and German residents consume about 1,000 to 1300 € per year on a trip, and there is no big difference. There are regional differences in regional differences. Residents in Germany have less than 100,000 yen for overseas trips once a year for 9 times per year, about 60,000 yen for domestic traveling twice a year for 2 times a year, France in the same EU It is probably due to climatic conditions that the proportion of people going abroad, such as Spain and Italy residents, is higher than that of nationals. Grasping the travel situation of the departure country leads to grasping the consumption trend of visitors at the receiving place.
The UK National Statistics Office continues to investigate the outbound travelers by travel purpose. As VFR decreases as a whole, it shows that only VFR is increasing. Tours for holiday purposes are decreasing, but package tours are decreasing even more. About 20% of UK resident residents are other nationality owners.
3 European countries utilizing Private Accommodation
(1) Relativization of housing and inn
Sharing economies represented by Airbnb are talked about all over the world. While utilizing the smartphone application, there is new taste in the place where it is a business model of P2P, but the inn itself utilizing individual houses and rooms has existed for a long time. In Japan, this is a social problem as “private residence” regardless of the inn. Until recently tourism researchers covered farm households favorably as research subjects and dealt with them as horsemen of green tourism. In Japan, as a model of rural tourism in Germany, the “law concerning the promotion of infrastructure development for leisure activities in agricultural and mountainous fishing villages” has been enacted. It is made up of policy concepts such as “rural stay-type leisure activities” rather than the phrase “sightseeing” to a magnificent degree. At the same time, we are beginning to be offered as weakly manson and others have accommodation function in the city. Today ‘s private residence had already started, but there was no smartphone. In the first place, the Japanese Ryokan Industry Law stipulates simple accommodations and boarding houses with the function of “Housing”, and does not necessarily prescribe only hotels and inns with the function of “Inn”. I called this “Relativization of housing and inn”.
According to the OECD statistics (OECD.Stat), the type of accommodation, Hotels and similar establishments, Specialized establishments (Caravan parks and commercial camping grounds), Other collective establishments (Rented houses, apartments, flats and units) , And Private accommodation (Guesthouse, bed and breakfast). Private accommodation category is distinguished from hotel. The figure (%) obtained by dividing this private accommodation by Nights in all types of accommodation was taken as the utilization ratio of the guest house. It can be seen that citizens traveling in Japan in many areas including major tourist destinations such as Greece, Croatia, Spain, Italy, Malta etc. are using the inn rather than using hotels etc. Also, even when foreign guests use the inn, they have high utilization rates in Spain, Denmark and Croatia.
In the European area, if the resident makes a trip, assuming that the degree of consciousness of foreign countries and domestic is low, the consciousness about the use of the inn should be not so different, and the result is shown in Table 4-7 It will appear in the same tendency in the form). As a result of the innovation being built for domestic use, it becomes a circulation that foreign guests also use.
(2) day trip
It is because the British resident ‘s overseas day – to – day rate is extremely lower than France, France and other Westerners, so it will not be easy to go day – to – day across the Dover Strait. Also, it may be that the day trip ratio in Hungary and Estonia is higher than that in England and France compared to the UK and France, but it is also high in Italy, but geographical relationships with neighboring countries are also high It can not be ignored. In domestic travel, comparing residents of Germany with residents of the UK, statistically, residents of the UK make 24 – 7 day trips on a day trip, and the nationality favorite trekking appears.
4 Travel Behavior Comparison in European Visitors’ Travel Location
The major countries of the UK, France, Germany and Iso rank among the best ten in both the number of visitors and travel income, and Russia and Turkey are also ranked in the number of visitors. In other words, Europe is the largest destination as a world travel destination (Table 1-4).
The reason is that the ratio of overseas trips from the region within the region is extremely high, mainly in neighboring countries. Day trips to neighboring countries are no different from domestic travel.
Then, which country is preferred as a travel destination in Europe? Table 4-10 shows the comparison of the number of visitors with accommodation to the population (lodging rate). For the whole of Europe, an average of 0.64 will be visited for accommodation of about 0.6 people per year per person per year. Less than expected is because countries such as Germany, England, Italy and Turkey have pushed average values in addition to the huge population of Russia. Italy, like Poland, has a high day-to-day rate and shows relatively few guests. As a result, both the departure rate and the entry rate are almost the same.
The high numerical values in Malta and Iceland should consider that the population is small and the fluctuation range is large, but it is also a popular barometer of tourist spots, and in Iceland it is also a result of becoming a topic in sports etc. in Iceland . As a country with a large population size, the West and French countries will also be in the top position.
For accommodation trips carried out by visitors to Europe, the average is 5 nights or more per trip, on a weighted average basis (Table 4-11). There are a lot of long-term guests in the UK, France and Istan which many visitors are affected. Apart from the UK, the Mediterranean sightseeing places of the southern France, Greece and Malta are representative, as well as the West, Italy, as well as many regions with climate-temperate regions. Conversely, in areas where the average number of lodging days is small, the accommodation period of cold climates such as Switzerland and Germany is shortened to the Nordic countries such as Sweden and Finland. It appears to be extremely common sense results.
People traveling in Europe tend to spend an average of 330 € on a trip and consume 60 € per day (Table 4-12). Although it is consumption at the destination, it is reflecting personnel expenses, prices, etc. that much expenditure in high-income regions comes out. It is easy to understand that Luxembourg and Switzerland are in the upper ranks. Malta and Cyprus are high in what is called tourism place price. French countries, Italy, Greece are about average, but it is marvelous that Spain is low.
(2) Western European Cities as a place of acceptance
In Western Europe there are many sightseeing destinations that attract travelers around the world, including Italy, Spain, in addition to English, French and German. Frequent occurrence of terrorist activities in the media, but in the last century left terrorist attacks occasionally occurred. An irregular strike of labor union also occurred. Still, a man had longed for the West and traveled. The potential force possessed by the sightseeing will not change significantly on the basis of movement within the region.
Table 4-13 (abbreviation) is the highest ranking of bed nights in Europe. The number of accommodations is increasing even in Paris in 2015 when the security problem became noisy. The number of airbnbs that are now on the agenda is being counted in New York
4-14 is the ranking of the number of staying days from the highest according to the place of residence of visitors to Europe. It is the United States, mainland China, Japan that ranks in other major European countries, but it can be seen that China is rapidly increasing as Japan decreases.
Consumption behavior per visitor, but higher amounts are paid in Germany and the UK. There are few French countries considered to be sightseeing spots, Italy and Spain are also half price moderately in Britain and Germany. It is thought that the weight of day trip guests is influenced. It is because the visitors who visit the mainland in the mainland, French Isei, have a high rate of 40% to 60% of the visitors because there are many visitors from neighboring countries in the mountains (Table 4-9). Consumption behavior per visitor, but higher amounts are paid in Germany and the UK. There are few French countries considered to be sightseeing spots, Italy and Spain are also half price moderately in Britain and Germany. It is thought that the weight of day trip guests is influenced.
For UK and German visitors, the data obtained by analyzing the amount consumed by visitor’s place of residence is “Table 4-15 and Table 2-7” (abbreviation). Although the bombing phenomenon of Chinese mainland residents is not shown as of 2014, the longing for visitors of mainland China residents is London, Paris, coupled with the lowering of airfare fares, the possibility that the unit cost of consumption will rise I have left.
(2) Difference between Italy and the West
For visitors to Italy and the West, the main force is neighboring countries such as Switzerland, Germany, France, Austria and the UK. Foreign guests visiting traveling countries are 9 to 11 nights in length for guests and represent characteristics as a destination for traveling countries while casual visits in that there are nearly half of the day tripees It also expresses features that are the earth. The big difference between the two countries appears in the amount. The average consumption in Italy is about 70% higher than Spain. On the other hand, the ratio of foreign guests visiting both countries is 3 times higher in Spain, so in comparison with Italy it is understandable that Spain is attracting more people at relatively lower prices for guests It may be.
It is the same as other European countries in that the foreign destinations carried out by Italian and Spanish residents are Europe and Morocco. Consumption per trip is also nearly the same in both countries, but the departure rate is a low figure of 0.47 for Italy and 0.47 for West for the average for Europe for 0.58 (Table 4-2). For Italian residents, the proportion of day trips is high, accounting for 60%. Spanish residents stay 11 nights a year compared with Italian residents for domestic travel.
(3) Switzerland and Greece ~ mountain resort and ocean resort
In Switzerland, there are 9.16 million accommodation visitors in Switzerland and Switzerland’s accommodation acceptance rate is slightly less than 1.40 in Spain and 1.31 in French but it is far better than the European average visit entry rate of 0.64, 1.12 and the major tourism destinations of the world The results are shown. There are many visitors from the UK, France, Italy and neighboring countries of Europe, with the exception of the United States, including 20% of Germany. For foreign guests visiting Switzerland, 2 nights are standard for hotels. Minshuku etc. are unknown, but it is understood that there are few travelers of long stay type.
Switzerland resident travel trends, reflecting per capita GDP per capita (86,145 € per capita), second only to Europe next to Luxembourg, international travel is the fourth largest after France, Cyprus and Austria per capita 893 €, domestic travel consumes 326.82 €. There are many day trips of domestic trips on average 9 times a year, and 2 nights is the standard when accompanied by accommodation. The average number of overseas lodging trips is 1.7 per year on average. Because the international tourism income and expenditure are balanced, the residents of the tourist country Switzerland from the international image are traveling abroad as we do visitors.
Greece is a typical tourist country even from numbers. Over 20 million visitors a year visit, including all the major European countries, 1.53 million visitors from neighboring Bulgaria. Moreover, visitors are staying for a long period of 8.4 nights on average. The Greek trip abroad is about 50% and it is standard level within the European region, and domestic travel also utilizes the inn and travels on average 10 days on average. Domestic travel accommodation destinations are dominated by overwhelmingly inn. The number of foreign visitors and the number of foreign travelers outside the country are one order of magnitude, which is shown as the difference between international tourism income and expenditure. Travel statistics also indicate the state that tourism is said to be the main industry supporting the economy of the country.
(5) Maltese and Iceland – Response at the inn for the rapidly increasing demand –
Malta and Iceland are the first and second island nations in Europe in terms of the entry rate. It is also common for visitors from France, Germany and Germany to rank in the top five. In recent years Iceland has suddenly raised the entry rate. It is an index that is hundreds of 2008, doubled to 196 in 2014, and 257 in 2015. Foreigners have increased dramatically since the Icelandic representatives of football played a major part in the European championships. In any of the domestic accommodation facilities, the occupancy rate rose to 75%. Expenditure per visitor was 16,160 thousand kroner (1357 €). Iceland was hit hard by the global financial crisis of 2008 in such a way that the national budget failed. In 2013, the tourism industry will become the first industry by surpassing the fishery in the main industry aluminum manufacturing industry, accounting for 31% of foreign currency acquisition in 2015. It is certain that the tourism industry is a major source of income for the current country, and in 2015 31% of foreign currency income was attributed to the tourism industry. However, lodging facilities tend to be short due to an increase in travelers. There is also a risk that demand will suddenly change, investment risk will increase in areas with small population size. It is probably due to that circumstance that the rate of inmates is gradually increasing although it is gradually.
(6) Effects of Estonia and Finland – Russia –
Estonia belongs to the former Soviet Union, as it is called the Baltic States, it is treated differently in Russian foreign statistics. More than half of foreign guests visiting Estonia are day trip guests, and staying for an average of 1.3 nights is short. This can be understood from the fact that the day cruises with Helsinki are being maintained and that the number of tourists from Russia is increasing. Estonian residents’ domestic trips are less than once per year on average, and even when accompanied by accommodation, it is as short as 1.4 days. Meanwhile, overseas trips have gone out 2.9 times a year on an average of Finland, and the difference in foreign countries is getting rid of. Finland is overwhelmingly overwhelming in the top five countries. Other than that, it is a neighboring country and Germany, with figures depending on population size. Meanwhile, although Finland also did not belong to the Communist region, it is a country that has been concerned with the relationship with Russia. Apart from Estonia and Sweden also in the human stream, we are balancing Germany and Russia.
4 Russia ~ Status of the leader appearing in human flows (VFR)
Table 4-21 is based on travel statistics prepared by Russia. If you look at this table, you can understand the limits of “international” travel statistics. In other words, during the Soviet era, it was treated as a domestic trip, and nationality is showing up with Ukraine etc. which never appeared in “international” travel statistics. Although the actual situation remains unchanged, the institution has changed, and the statistics are extreme examples that have changed.
Because the actual situation does not change, consciousness can not come about the system, travel statistics of Russia has been handled differently from UNWTO statistics. As a result, human activity activity appeared small compared with other European countries.
In Russia, unlike UNWTO, VFR (Visiting friends and relatives) was not included in tourist statistics. Another traveling world can be seen from Russia’s travel world (Table 4-22) based on OECD statistics so far. Especially the Ukraine where the Russians live abundantly is an extreme example. Rather than the problems of the tourism statistics of UNWTO, the problems of tourism statistics themselves are highlighted. In Table 4-22, statistics shows the number of stateless people entering the country by 340,000.
In 2014 the Russian Tourism Board announced data on the number of foreign travelers in Russia by UNWTO aggregation method. In the aggregation method of UNWTO, all those who were aiming for employment / long-term study abroad / school attendance, officials of overseas diplomatic missions, military persons and their families, and crews of ships and aircraft were counted. It included travelers and others for commercial purposes. According to Russia’s aggregation method, it seems that tourists are counted finely divided by nominal purpose. According to the UNWTO method, the number of tourists living in foreign countries who visited Russia in 2014 was 25.44 million, with the exception of the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries, the number one ranked 1.88 million from Finland, the second ranked China 850,000 from Germany, 3rd place is 5800 people from Germany, 4th place is 260,000 from Turkey and 5th place is 250 thousand from the United States, which is also different from the OECD material. In addition, despite the political circumstances such as Sino-Soviet border conflict, there is exchange of about one million people in both countries, while the human flows of both Japan and Russ have both 100,000 Less than.
According to Tourism in Russia issued on March 31, 2014, 70% of visitors to Russia are VFR (Table 4-23). It is said that 25 million Russians live in neighboring countries including Eastern European countries, as the Russian people who lived in various places during the former Soviet Union were to be located abroad as the Soviet Union collapsed. The number of these Russians visiting Russia for the purpose of visiting friends, relatives is enormous, and in 2010 we visited 15.7 million visitors as a result of simplifying visas related to VFR. In addition, Russia is third in the world with overpayment of 38669 millionns US $ in the international balance of payment due to 2014 50428 millions US $, which is huge as well as upward and downward balance.
戦後70年の価値観が揺らいでいる」歴史家の加藤陽子氏、太平洋戦争からTPPとトランプ現象を紐解く 真珠湾攻撃から75年、歴史家・加藤陽子氏は語る「太平洋戦争を回避する選択肢はたくさんあった」 三国同盟の見方 歴史は後から作られる例